Fred Pearce is an environmental consultant to New Scientist magazine Last week it was revealed that 54 oil tankers are anchored off the coast of Britain, refusing to unload their fuel until prices have risen. But that is not the only scandal in the shipping world. Today award-winning science writer Fred Pearce — environmental consultant to New Scientist and author of Confessions Of An Eco Sinner — reveals that the super-ships that keep the West in everything from Christmas gifts to computers pump out killer chemicals linked to thousands of deaths because of the filthy fuel they use. We’ve all noticed it. The filthy black smoke kicked out by funnels on cross-Channel ferries, cruise liners, container ships, oil tankers and even tugboats. It looks foul, and leaves a brown haze across ports and shipping lanes. As ships get bigger, the pollution is getting worse. Because of their colossal engines, each as heavy as a small ship, these super-vessels use as much fuel as small power stations. But, unlike power stations or cars, they can burn the cheapest, filthiest, high-sulphur fuel:
Transportation, Air Pollution, and Climate Change
This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Less well understood, is the mechanism driving this age-dependent membrane association. Methods Fiber cell membranes from human and bovine lenses were separated from soluble proteins by centrifugation.
Membranes were stripped of associated proteins with successive aqueous, urea, and alkaline solutions.
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Whale song is the sounds made by whales and which is used for different kinds of communication. Dolphins emit two distinct kinds of acoustic signals, which are called whistles and clicks: A unique signature whistle develops quite early in a dolphin’s life, and it appears to be created in an imitation of the signature whistle of the dolphin’s mother.
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Contact the librarian at SAAO library saao. Last update December Age bimodality in the central region of pseudo-bulges in S0 galaxies. Taurus Dippers and Rotators. Discovery of an ongoing retrograde density wave. Covariant perturbations of Schwarzschild black holes in f R gravity. Mod Physic Journal, Astroparticle Physics ADS Star formation and AGN activity in a sample of local luminous infrared galaxies through multiwavelength characterization.
Integrability conditions of quasi-Newtonian cosmologies in modified gravity. Modelling galaxy merger time-scales and tidal destruction. Photometric and spectroscopic evidence for colliding winds. On the use of variability time-scales as an early classifier of radio transients and variables.
Dating back to UAAP Season 72 in , the Maroons broke a thirteen-game, seven-year losing streak against their Katipunan-based brothers with the four-point victory. The Eagles started the game strong; outscoring UP, True to their name, the Fighting Maroons fought back and ended the 1st period with a run. The second quarter saw back-and-forth shots between the teams.
The symbol for the neutrino is the Greek letter “nu” (ν)• So, the equation from earlier becomes 14 6 C → N + e +ν 14 7 − Negatron Decay 14 6 C → N + e +ν 14 .
This is the statistically correct way to represent relative human contributions to the greenhouse effect. From Table 4a, both natural and man-made greenhouse contributions are illustrated in this chart, in gray and green, respectively. For clarity only the man-made anthropogenic contributions are labeled on the chart. Even if we wanted to we can do nothing to change this. Anthropogenic man-made CO2 contributions cause only about 0.
Adding up all anthropogenic greenhouse sources, the total human contribution to the greenhouse effect is around 0. Reducing man-made CO2 emissions this much would have an undetectable effect on climate while having a devastating effect on the U. And that is just a down payment, with more sacrifices to come later.
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Ben Affleck has a new lady in his life, E! A source tells us that the two are still very much “in the early stages” of their relationship and recently met up while he was in London for work. We’re told that the duo caught a showing of Sam Mendes ‘ play Ferryman last week during their trip abroad. It’s early and they are taking it slow. They kept whispering in each other’s ears and Ben was quite touchy with Lindsay.
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First Buddhist council According to the scriptures of all Buddhist schools, the first Buddhist Council was held soon after the death of the Buddha , dated by the majority of recent scholars around BCE,  under the patronage of the king Ajatashatru with the monk Mahakasyapa presiding, at Sattapanni caves Rajgriha now Rajgir. Its objective was to preserve the Buddha’s sayings suttas and the monastic discipline or rules Vinaya.
The Suttas were recited by Ananda , and the Vinaya was recited by Upali. Also, the Sangha made the unanimous decision to keep all the rules of the Vinaya, even the lesser and the minor rules. Some scholars of Indian Buddhism have questioned the event’s historicity,  although Sri Lankan and Theravadan sources display a level of internal coherence that suggest otherwise . The circumstances surrounding the First Buddhist Council are recorded in the Vinaya Pitaka of the early Buddhist schools.
Second Buddhist council[ edit ] Main article: Second Buddhist council The historical records for the so-called “Second Buddhist Council” derive primarily from the canonical Vinayas of various schools. In most cases, these accounts are found at the end of the Skandhaka portion of the Vinaya.
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Based on concepts such as robustness, reproducibility and automation, modern calculation tools are exploited to produce original nuclear data libraries that meet the current demands on quality and completeness. This requires a system which comprises differential measurements, theory development, nuclear model codes, resonance analysis, evaluation, ENDF formatting, data processing and integral validation in one integrated approach.
Software, built around the TALYS code, will be presented in which all these essential nuclear data components are seamlessly integrated. Besides the quality of the basic data and its extensive format testing, a second goal lies in the diversity of processing for different type of users. The implications of this scheme are unprecedented.
Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is a technology that can capture up to 90% of the carbon dioxide (CO 2) emissions produced from the use of fossil fuels in electricity generation and industrial processes, preventing the carbon dioxide from entering the atmosphere.
Overview[ edit ] Electrons and their interactions with electromagnetic fields are important in our understanding of chemistry and physics. In the classical view , the energy of an electron orbiting an atomic nucleus is larger for orbits further from the nucleus of an atom. However, quantum mechanical effects force electrons to take on discrete positions in orbitals. Thus, electrons are found in specific energy levels of an atom, two of which are shown below: When an electron absorbs energy either from light photons or heat phonons , it receives that incident quantum of energy.
But transitions are only allowed between discrete energy levels such as the two shown above. This leads to emission lines and absorption lines. When an electron is excited from a lower to a higher energy level, it unlikely for it to stay that way forever. An electron in an excited state may decay to a lower energy state which is not occupied, according to a particular time constant characterizing that transition.
When such an electron decays without external influence, emitting a photon, that is called ” spontaneous emission “. The phase and direction associated with the photon that is emitted is random. A material with many atoms in such an excited state may thus result in radiation which has a narrow spectrum centered around one wavelength of light , but the individual photons would have no common phase relationship and would also emanate in random directions.
This is the mechanism of fluorescence and thermal emission.
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Consumption based GHG emissions of C40 cities New research by C40 Cities, the University of Leeds, University of New South Wales, and Arup examines the greenhouse gas GHG emissions associated with goods and services consumed by residents of cities such as food, clothing, electronic equipment, airplane travel, delivery trucks and construction industries.
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In the later compendium of Babylonian astronomy and astrology titled MUL. In Greek Mythology, Canis Major represented the dog Laelaps , a gift from Zeus to Europa ; or sometimes the hound of Procris , Diana’s nymph; or the one given by Aurora to Cephalus , so famed for its speed that Zeus elevated it to the sky. The ancient Greeks refer only to one dog, but by Roman times, Canis Minor appears as Orion’s second dog.
Alternative names include Canis Sequens and Canis Alter. One of them, called Merzem , includes the stars of Canis Major and Canis Minor and is the herald of two weeks of hot weather. Schlegel reported that the stars Omicron and Pi Canis Majoris might have been them,  while Beta or Nu2 have also been proposed. He spears them and all three are placed in the sky as the constellation Munowra. The three-letter abbreviation for the constellation, as adopted by the International Astronomical Union in , is ‘CMa’.
Volatile-Rich Planet Loading the player MESSENGER measurements have revealed that Mercury is surprisingly abundant in volatile elements that evaporate at moderately high temperatures, ruling out many of the models for its formation and early history that had been proposed before the mission. Because potassium is much more volatile than thorium, the ratio of the abundances of these two elements is a sensitive measure of thermal processes that fractionate elements by volatility.
For Mercury, as seen in the first graph, this ratio is similar to that for other terrestrial planets at greater distances from the Sun but significantly higher than that for the Moon, which lost potassium during the giant impact that led to its formation. Relatively high abundances of other volatile elements, including sulfur right side of the animation , sodium, and chlorine, provide further evidence that Mercury is volatile-rich.
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