Encyclopedy Index Alabaster Alabaster sometimes called satin spar is a name applied to varieties of two distinct minerals: The former is the alabaster of the present day; the latter is generally the alabaster of the ancients. The two kinds are readily distinguished from each other by their relative hardnesses. The gypsum kind is so soft as to be readily scratched by a finger-nail hardness 1. Moreover, the calcite alabaster, being a carbonate, effervesces on being touched with hydrochloric acid, whereas the gypsum alabaster, when so treated, remains practically unaffected. Calcite Alabaster This substance, the “alabaster” of the Bible, is often termed Oriental alabaster, since the early examples came from the Far East. The Greek name alabastrites is said to be derived from the town of Alabastron, in Egypt, where the stone was quarried, but the locality probably owed its name to the mineral; the origin of the mineral-name is obscure, and it has been suggested that it may have had an Arabic origin. This “Oriental” alabaster was highly esteemed for making small perfume-bottles or ointment vases called alabastra, and this has been conjectured to be a possible source of the name. Alabaster was also employed in Egypt for canopic jars and various other sacred and sepulchral objects.
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These lakes existed during periods from 6, to 5, years ago and 3, to 2, years ago. The lakes are thought to have formed as a result of “cataclysmic rainfall” similar to present-day monsoon rains and most probably lasted for only a few years. However, lakes in the Mundafen area in the southwest of the Rub’ al Khali show evidence of lasting longer, up to years, due to increased runoff from the Tuwaiq Escarpment.
gypsum speleothems and describe gypsum powder Gypsum speleothems are a rarely used, if they can (formed after ice sublimation), gypsum yozh (with spherical, hemispherical, flat or amorphous shape, with development closely related to clay deposits), 1 GEO, .
This was the first National Park created in Ecuador and in South America to protect this unique place. This declaration was due to its geological uniqueness and great diversity with more than species of flora, great diversity of birds, mammals, and insects of exotic appearance. The objective of this Reserve was to: Protect the geology, flora, fauna, and water resources for future generations.
Preserve the resources of the area as a natural botanical garden. The Reserve has an area of hectares Varies from 0 to 27 C 32 to 80 F Rain Fall: This name is a good match to this caldera since every day it gets covered with fog–usually in the afternoon. The moisture comes from the west, the direction of the coast. The moisture travels north-east through the Guayllabamba river gorge and condenses in the form of fog when it enters the cool environment of the caldera.
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So, how do we know how old a fossil is? There are two main methods determining a fossils age, relative dating and absolute dating. Relative dating is used to determine a fossils approximate age by comparing it to similar rocks and fossils of known ages. Absolute dating is used to determine a precise age of a fossil by using radiometric dating to measure the decay of isotopes, either within the fossil or more often the rocks associated with it.
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Address of the park is: The grand opening of the park was held October 5, View photos in the Image Gallery. Sited on hundreds of acres of land formerly mined for gypsum, the Park will provide a high quality riding experience to users within a regulated riding area. Since , a dedicated alliance of individuals and groups have been working with local and state officials; gypsum company representatives; and user groups to see the Park through to fruition.
With the consultation of Shive-Hattery, a master planning process was followed and several phases of development were identified.
Rub’ al Khali
Working techniques[ edit ] Alabaster is mined and then sold in blocks to alabaster workshops. The effect of heating appears to be a partial dehydration of the gypsum. If properly treated, it very closely resembles true marble and is known as “marmo di Castellina”. In this way a very misleading imitation of coral that is called “alabaster coral” is produced.
This novel approach of constructing a lacustrine chronology from U-series dating of gypsum sand layers should be applicable to semiarid regions globally. Pleistocene Lake Estancia was a large perennial lake in the Estancia Basin in central New Mexico during the last ice age.
Despite its relevance, the paleoseismic record of this region is scarce, hampering our understanding about the relationship between the Andes building and earthquake occurrence. In this study, we used the U-series disequilibrium method to obtain absolute ages of paleoearthquake events associated with normal displacements along the active Mejillones and Salar del Carmen faults in the Coastal Range of the Atacama Desert of northern Chile.
The Th— U disequilibrium ages in co-seismic gypsum salts sampled along the fault traces together with marine evidences indicate that earthquakes occurred at ca. When coupled with paleoseismic marine and radiocarbon 14C records in the nearby Mejillones Bay evidencing large dislocations along the Mejillones Fault, the geochronological dataset presented here is consistent with the notion that gypsum salts formed during large earthquakes as a result of co-seismic dilatancy pumping of saline waters along the major faults.
Based on maximum observed cumulative vertical offsets in the studied faults, this phenomena could have occurred episodically at a rate in the order of 1: The results presented here reveal that the U-series disequilibrium method can be successfully applied to date the gypsum salts deposited along faults during seismic events, and therefore directly constrain the age of large paleoearthquakes in hyperarid and seismically active zones. Previous article in issue.
The furnace for calcining gypsum by Theodore Gericault
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Beau Fort is an early Creole-influenced residence built between and Beau Fort acquired its name from a local legend that the home was built upon the original site of Fort Charles, one of the first forts in the area. Over the course of two centuries, Beau Fort has been immaculately restored and preserved so that future generations may enjoy its unique architecture and history. Its longevity is a testament to the architectural and enginnering prowess of the unknown laborers that constructed it centuries ago.
The main living areas are located on the first floor and feature three French doors that open onto an foot wrap-around gallery porch. The prevalence of large windows and the open space beneath the floor creates a ventilation system to cool the interior. The original punkah fan shipped to the plantation from India still hangs in the dining room. The interior architecture of the home is unique in that there is not a single wall that goes all the way through from front to back, or from end to end.
Global Gypsum Conference and Exhibition
Supplies of FGD gypsum will drop dramatically in the coming years as coal-fired power stations are progressively closed, and environmental and other regulations are curtailing the supply of some sources of natural gypsum. Some bulk gypsum suppliers are curtailing exports to focus on domestic markets. Recycling is becoming a potentially significant new source of raw materials. Given these changes in the markets, gypsum users wallboard and plaster manufacturers, cement producers and agricultural users are likely to seek new supplies and new suppliers of their crucial raw materials.
Buyers and traders of gypsum are expected to attend. Global GypSupply will examine trends in gypsum recycling in Europe and worldwide, from the design of the original product and optimising its recyclability, through building deconstruction, plaster and wallboard collection and logistics, through to board shredding and gypsum and additive separation to create high-quality recycled gypsum resources.
Giant gypsum crystals have also been discovered at the El Teniente copper mine in Chile and Pulpi and Saelices in Spain (16, 17). These geological scenarios are very singular due to the size (up to m long and 1-m thick), euhedral shape and high transparency of these gypsum crystals.
Nickel is vital as an alloy to stainless steel, and it plays a key roll in the chemical and aerospace industries. Leading producers are Canada, Norway, and Russia. Phosphate rock Primarily a sedimentary rock used to produce phosphoric acid and ammoniated phosphate fertilizers, feed additives for livestock, elemental phosphorus, and a variety of phosphate chemicals for industrial and home consumers.
The majority of U. These elements commonly occur together in nature and are among the scarcest of the metallic elements. Platinum is used principally in catalytic converters for the control of automobile and industrial plant emissions; in jewelry; in catalysts to produce acids, organic chemicals, and pharmaceuticals; and in dental alloys used for making crowns and bridges. Potash Potash is an industry term that refers to a group of water-soluble salts containing the element potassium, as well as to ores containing these salts Kesler, Potash is used in fertilizer, medicine, the chemical industry, and to produce decorative color effects on brass, bronze, and nickel.
Pyrite Pyrite fools gold is used in the manufacture of sulfur, sulfuric acid, and sulfur dioxide; pellets of pressed pyrite dust are used to recover iron, gold, copper, cobalt, and nickel. Quartz Quartz crystals are popular as a semiprecious gemstone; crystalline varieties include amethyst, citrine, rose quartz, and smoky quartz. Because of its piezoelectric properties the ability to generate electricity under mechanical stress , quartz is used for pressure gauges, oscillators, resonators, and wave stabilizers.
Rub’ al Khali
Historical analysis tells us that the Egyptians built the Giza Pyramids in a span of 85 years between and BC. Interest in Egyptian chronology is widespread in both popular and scholarly circles. We wanted to use science to test the accepted historical dates of several Old Kingdom monuments.
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Mineralogy As a discipline, mineralogy has had close historical ties with geology. Minerals as basic constituents of rocks and ore deposits are obviously an integral aspect of geology. The problems and techniques of mineralogy, however, are distinct in many respects from those of the rest of geology, with the result that mineralogy has grown to be a large, complex discipline in itself.
Nepheline greasy light gray , sodalite blue , cancrinite yellow , feldspar white , and ferromagnesian minerals black in an alkalic syenite from Litchfield, Maine, U. About 3, distinct mineral species are recognized, but relatively few are important in the kinds of rocks that are abundant in the outer part of the Earth. Thus a few minerals such as the feldspars, quartz, and mica are the essential ingredients in granite and its near relatives.
Limestones , which are widely distributed on all continents, consist largely of only two minerals, calcite and dolomite. Many rocks have a more complex mineralogy, and in some the mineral particles are so minute that they can be identified only through specialized techniques. It is possible to identify an individual mineral in a specimen by examining and testing its physical properties.